PAS-WATER is a flexible toolkit and consultancy service. It works on different spatial scales and develops iterative diagnosis cycles to provide information and evidence to build consensus among stakeholders and public administration for the adoption of a scheme of payments for adaptation services based on water harvesting.
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
The main components of the system have been tested separately, and an initial integration exercise has been conducted.

How does it work?

PAS-WATER is run through three iterative steps under the aim of achieving a consolidated PAS scheme. In each step a series of intertwined activities are developed concerning the three main defined approaches: Water Accounting and Auditing; Funding and Payments Schemes; and Multi-Stakeholder Platform. PAS-WATER builds on these ideas by combining multiple scales and successive interactions to get solid agreements on water accounting, economic valuation of provided services, models and schemes for distribution of payments, funding mechanisms and responsibilities for the implementation. This information is provided through layers with different detail and integrated with the support of key stakeholders at the relevant scale.

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AUDIMOD tool is composed by two separate modules: a) The “Ex-Post” Module: this module supports decision makers and managers to regularly monitor and audit the irrigation system including hydrological, environmental and socioeconomic indicators b) The “Ex- Ante” Module: this module helps decision makers and managers to simulate the potential effects of an irrigation modernisation project, based on a set of indicators and variables which can be easily compiled and/or produced before the project is approved.
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
The accounting and auditing methodology has already tested and validated at small scale, i.e. a number of irrigation modernization projects with different characteristics. The main elements have been integrated in a prototype tool.

How does it work?

The AUDIMOD tool encompasses a software tool supported by a full water accounting and auditing methodology. The AUDIMOD tool generates a reduced set of indicators that allow water managers to assess and periodically monitor the main effects of an irrigation modernisation, i.e. addressing agronomical, hydrological, socioeconomic and environmental aspects. This allows to evaluate whether an irrigation modernisation has reached its main objectives. The AUDIMOD “ex ante” tool applies a multi-criteria method to typify modernisation projects into a set of predefined groups based on already implemented irrigation modernisations. This is accompanied by a set of guidelines to help steer the projects to meet the planned requirements.

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The department of Hydrology of the university of Leuven elaborated a 2-D sewer surface inundation model for the city centre of Antwerp. Although very useful in itself, by raising the preparedness and the logistics of the first responders, and by providing a lever for mitigation, the 2-D model is a climate concept, which does not take into account actual meteorological data.
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
Compact high resolution X-band radar is developed. Inundation risk maps have also been developed. Both need to be interlinked now.

How does it work?

An X-band radar provides us with a forecast of heavy rain: expected intensity and expected neighbourhoods. Radar images (if available, validated by pluviometer data) are transferred into discharge amounts, and then put into a 2-D GIS-model, taking into acount two dimensions: surface relieef and sewer capacity. This enables us to predict where the most severe flash floods will occur.

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Despite the multitude of sensors and DSSs currently available, estimating stomatal conductance and transpiration at orchard level remains a challenge. Our innovation consists in validating a model build by applying a direct parameterization of the Penman–Monteith equation developed to compute diurnal courses of orchard canopy conductance (gc) from sap flow in sub-hour resolution for both day and night conditions.
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
Following the definition of TRL, we have tested the model in specific environments and tree species. There is still work to be done to validate the model and especially to use the IoT tools to provide the data on drought stress (stomata closure) very easy for farmer usage and linked to the automation of the irrigation system.

How does it work?

Sap flow sensors are installed in some trees within the plantation for monitoring purposes. A portable meteorological station measures net Radiation (Rn), air Temperature (Ta) and Relative Humidity (RH) of air. Atmospheric vapour pressure Deficit (D) is calculated from temperature and relative humidity. Our modeling approach is different as it uses diurnal courses of variables instead of commonly used daily means (see dattached paper for details of the model). The farmers can monitor the field conditions from anywhere, especially the stomata closure due to drought stress which limits photosynthesis and therefore tree productivity. The innovation is precise farming and is highly efficient when compared with the conventional approach.

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Myclimateservices.eu contains
* a digitized standardized workflow for assessing climate risks and appraise adaptation scenarios basing on climate- and location data at the site of the respective infrastructure project and
* a marketplace to match projects with relevant localized data, experts for in-depth and specific counsel and to find projects (already realized or in planning) comparable in terms of hazard profile, elements at risk and type of project in order to share and transfer knowledge.

Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
The newly designed workflow is under implementation in four European demo locations (featuring as labs); as end users from municipalities and industry were involved in user story development as well as are validating the results one may presume the path to "relevant environment" (TRL5). The entire innovation in all elements builds on results from former research projects for climate- and disaster risk modeling and methodology (e.g. for urban climate, "hazard twins“ feature), which provide TRLs from 3 to 7. Programming and implementing each module of the digitized workflow is under development (agile approach); mock-ups are the basis for end user input and feedback and may actually be estimated as TRL3 - experimental proof of concept.

How does it work?

Access is provided by web services. End users gather relevant information on their project in a structured, comprehensive way and are guided through the process by the digitized workflow.
First action is marking a project´s location on a map. An overview of "data packages" for the selected location is provided - besides climate data in several resolutions these may be land use, topography, census data etc.
At the end of the screening process a report summarizes hazards, risk, impact and adaptation options and the end user can decide to connect with experts for working on most critical risks. The marketplace provides a connection appropriate for the type of project, detected hazards, additional required data in better resolution etc.

August, 2018
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3D Printing of coastal protection Reefs

This innovation mitigates Coastal Floods and is focused on the Albanian Coastline using industrial 3D printing technology. Using a large scale robotic arm so-called Reef Ball protective elements are 3D printed in stone like material (mixture of sand, cement and water as the binder) in layer like configurations. Using this technology would allow to print full scale protective barrier reefs to be deployed in different coastal areas in Albania with erosion risks. The innovation it is not a fixed structure, but has mobile components.
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
Smaller scale prototypes of the reef balls have been constructed through smaller scale 3D printers and a CNC machine. These prototypes are constructed from polylactic acid (PLA) and tested in laboratory. The presence of a robotic arm would allow the jump to the real scale and adequate material testing. Even though our laboratories miss the robotic arm, the staff of our laboratory has previous experience in large scale digital prefabrication thank to the collaboration with partner universities and research centers.

How does it work?

Using a 3D Printer and digital tools for the Reef Ball elements to protect the coastline not only allows for fast prototyping but also for easily changeable and unique components to each coastline. The innovation is a ‘green based’ solution, as the proposed stone-like concrete is 90% recyclable and can be obtained by recycling other already built systems. The Reef Balls themselves provide a habitat for flora and fauna of the sea to inhabit the structures and enrich the underwater life. Finally, the possibility to model the structures in different ways and even turning those structures to works of arts and sculpting could encourage future underwater tourism.

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The project's application will make it possible to improve the flood conditions and ensure the protection of areas along the Erzeni river bed. By using a variety of natural materials such as Coir log combined with vegetation, this method not only protects the river bank, but also maintains their ecological continuity and stability. Materials used for river rehabilitation will be environmentally friendly.
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
The whole technique proposed is based on applicable methods. The rehabilitation of the Erzen river bed in the municipality of Durres will extend to about 2,000 meters, but this distance will be disconnected along the course where there is a greater need for interference. This technique enables the prevention of flooding simultaneously to prevent erosion. The results obtained during the first year of monitoring will confirm the success of this method, thus turning it into a practice for preventive measures to flooding in the future.

How does it work?

The re-naturalization or planting process of plants is made in such a way that they can be easily rooted and do not require special treatment, such as reed, willow, poplar suitable for the study area. The proposed project focuses on two alternative solutions. The first focuses on the installation of Coir Logs at the bottom of the river and secondly the planting of three floor vegetations, to enable flood elimination in natural form.

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QoAir: A blockchain-based system for heatwave management in urban areas

The QoAir system will provide a quick feedback about the situation in the urban area. Even though everyone has a mobile device with temperature prediction, all these results come from measurements done in other conditions such as under shadow, etc. They don't reflect the real degree and the real feel of the heat in urban areas caused of pollution factors. The idea of the QoAir project is to create a network of sensors distributed over an area. These sensors, connected together in the blockchain network, will measure the temperature increase of the area where they reside.
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
The project is comprised of two parts: (1) software development, and (2) hardware integration. The first part is in development phase, and for the second part we need the proper hardware, which in the meantime is replaced with synthetically generated data.

How does it work?

QoAir is a blockchain-based solution to measure heat in urban areas via a network of connected sensors. In case a heat-wave is detected a trigger will be generated and sent to a governmental institution which will then follow their respective guidelines to raise awareness and prepare the population with the right countermeasures. Here comes in hand a new technology, a distributed database made up of blocks of data connected with each other in a hashed form: the blockchain. This component will contribute to greater stakeholder involvement, transparency and engagement and help bring trust and further innovative solutions, since it can be later integrated with other systems.

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Low cost meteorological stations

The low cost meteorological station is a module composed of a microcontroller connected to: 1. GPS sensor, which shows the accurate coordinates of the module 2. Precipitation sensor 3. Humidity sensor 4. Temperature sensor 5. Real time data transmitter connected to internet via SIM card. 6. Other optional sensors could be added, ex: fire detector etc. 7. Power supply
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
A simple prototype similar to the proposed module has been built, but some of the features have not been studied yet such as: no GPS was integrated, the data was received via wireless not sim. The current equipment measures: ambient temperature, detects fire and measures the humidity.

How does it work?

The low cost meteorological station is a module composed of a micro-controller connected to:GPS, Precipitation,Humidity, Temperature sensor,Real time data transmitter connected to internet via SIM card.The cost of a module varies between 30-50 Euros. Each module delivers data in defined time periods will be archived in the server of the project. The real time data of each of the stations will be available online for every internet user. The users can reach the real time data simply by clicking on the map. Also companies, public or research institutions will be able to receive the information in return of a payment or in accordance with any agreement between the project administration and the respective end-user.

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Permeable Polymer Concrete

Permeable Polymer Concrete (PPC) is a highly porous and permeable material which is mostly appropriate for pavements and roads. With its highly permeability rate it minimizes to a large extent the effect of flash floods. If designed properly it reaches very good strength values and it is resistant to abrasion, wet-dry cycles, frost, high ambient temperatures etc. We propose Permeable Polymer Concrete as a very good solution to the mitigation of flash flood problems in urban and industrial areas like Tirana and Durres.
Technology validated in lab.
Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together. This is relatively “low fidelity” compared with the eventual system. Examples include integration of “ad hoc” hardware in the laboratory.
Several specimens of PPC with different mix designs were produced at Epoka University Civil Engineering Laboratory. It was observed that resin hardens in a couple of hours, nevertheless the samples were left in the molds for 3 days. After three days they were removed from the molds and analyzed. The sample was kept under flowing water for several minutes and it was observed that flowing water passed through PPC samples without almost no resistance. The properties of the binding material such as compressive and flexural strength, wet-dry cycle resistance and resistance to high temperatures were investigated in one of our previous studies on small scale specimens. The preliminary investigations provided very important information about the capabilities of this innovative material, showing that PPC could be a very good solution for flash flood with its high permeability and drainage capacity.

How does it work?

Permeable Polymer Concrete is a type of concrete obtained from mixing coarse aggregate with polymer resin. It consists of coarse aggregates of size larger than 10 mm, and resin material which creates a thin layer around the aggregates during mixing acting as a binding material to immobilize the aggregates in the aggregate matrix. Accordingly, it contains many voids, which play the major role in defining its properties. PPC is suitable for Roads, Walkways, Parking Lots, Pavements, Green Houses and precast industry. Preliminary investigations have shown that PPC can drain water with almost no resistance from the material being such a very good solution for flash flooding especially in urban and industrial areas.

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