I-REACT (Improving Resilience to Emergencies through Advanced Cyber Technologies) is a Horizon 2020 3-year project (2016-2019) funded by the European Commission under the Secure Society Work Programme (DRS-1-2015). I-REACT aims to develop a solution through the integration and modelling of data coming multiple sources. Information from European monitoring systems, earth observations, historical information, and weather forecasts will be combined with data gathered by new technological developments created by I-REACT.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
All the I-REACT solutions are operational, meaning that the web-based application for control centers as well as the UAV system are up and running and features a Cloud-based deployment that guarantees availability and reliability. All data streams are operational, meaning that I-REACT regularly receives early warnings for extreme weather events, floods, fires, and weather forecasts. The social media monitoring works 24/7 on 8 hazards and 4 languages (English, Italian, Spanish, Finnish) and the mobile app will be launched in the Android and Apple Stores in Oct 2018. The I-REACT solutions have been already demonstrated three times with real stakeholders (civil protections, monitoring agencies, fire fighters) in simulated in-field exercises also at international level.

How does it work?

I-REACT integrates existing services, both local and European, into a platform that supports the entire emergency management cycle. In particular, I-REACT will implement a multi-hazard system with a focus on floods, fires and extreme weather events, as they are the most impacting natural hazard affected by climate change. I-REACT supports three key emergency management phases, i.e. prevention, preparedness and response phases.

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A LAM model for regions with complex orography

While the climate modeling community is performing runs typically at grid spacing of 100 km, 50 km or at most, 10 km, higher resolutions are needed for places with complex topography and dynamical downscaling seems to be the way to go. The Meteorological Models local circulations accurate simulation ability will rely strongly on resolving the important terrain features over focused area. Since the terrain height depends on the grid resolution model, it is essential that the simulation uses an adequate grid size in order to resolve the terrain forcing over the analysed area.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
The innovation has a TRL 6 because the product has been tested in a relevant environment. This environment is the region of Sicily (I), a region with a complex orography. The innovation has been tested through numerous case studies in which extreme meteorological events of the past have been analyzed. In this framework, we analyzed and discussed, as a case study, the heavy rains that occurred in Sicily during the night of 10 October 2015 [1]. In just 9 hours, a Mediterranean depression, centered on the Tunisian coast, produced a violent storm of mesoscale located on the Peloritani Mountains with a maximum rainfall of about 200 mm. The analysis was based on the comparison of the model's performance with the data collected by the networks of weather stations available in Sicily. The obtained results consented to clearly show that the improvement of the model grid spacing, together with the use of more accurate geographic data and the land use data, more suitable for the description of the territory, are the key elements for the prediction accuracy. This is especially true for geographic areas like Sicily that are characterized by the presence of complex orographic structures.

How does it work?

The proposed innovation is based on the development of a WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting model), with ARW (Advanced Research WRF) core, specifically optimized for territories with complex orography, through developments that significantly affect the use of initial high-resolution static orographic data, soil and vegetative coverage data and sea temperature data. A further optimization process of the model is based on the different physical parametrizations The numerical forecasts provided by the models used and the data from the surveys carried out are processed using numerical multiscaling approaches, with particular reference to the wavelets, to identify correlations, trends and anomalies.

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GREENFIX f³ Fire Free Fibres Blankets

GREENFIX f³ is composed of unique grass fibres of European origin and specially treated according to best environmental practices, so that these fire free fibres are 100 % biodegradable within 36 to 60 months. Dajti Adventure Park is one hot spot to test the blankets. Being vulnerable to human activities, including hazardous activities like inattentive cigarette smoking, the park is at all times risked by human behavior. Erosion is also a phenomenon that has a bad influence on the Park. Using the GREENFIX Fire Free blankets could potentially reduce the negative impacts.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
GREENFIX f3 has been applied in different relevant environment> There is a necessity to implement these type of techniques in Albania, mostly in Dajti Adventure Park in Tirana. As this technique has not yet been implemented in Tirana we classify this innovation as a TRL6.

How does it work?

The blanket is placed central at a minimum of 30 cm over the channel. The mat is secured by catching the clip-on channel 30 cm distance from each other. Filled with dough and coated. Sowing seeds and placing the map, is provided with a row of clasps located at 30 cm distance from each other. This Greenfix fire Free Blanket should be placed in one attractive adventure park inn Dajti mountain in Tirana, as is a new park and is more vulnerable to human activities. placing this blankets in this park should reduce as well the negative impact for erosion.

January, 2019
- Innovation renamed to include the term GREENFIX f3. - URL path renamed by Sergio Contreras (WP3 leader)
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The innovation support the restoration of natural eco-systems of optimal forest management for enhancing the hydrological role of vegetation coverage in rainfall retention and flood prevention. This is done by planting trees and burned area’s re-planting and constructing check-dams and seeding soil stabilizing grasses in selected bare lands in selected Drini river catchments.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
1. Identification of areas demonstration and modeling of engineering interventions stabilizing bio-remediation of soil and plant moldings; 2. Demonstration of 4-pilot areas during 2014-2015 within Drini river watershed and develop 4-pilot sites: (i)“Gjoricë”, Dibër sub-region; (ii)“Vig-Mnelë”, Shkodra sub-region; )iii) “Tërthore”, Kukësi sub-region; (iv)“Blinisht”, Lezha sub-region; 3. Public awareness field symposia and training workshops increasing community-based adaptation and resilience against floods and extreme events (erosion, landslides, floods, droughts, heatwaves, wildfires, rainfall and wind storms)..

How does it work?

The project will demonstrate bio-engineering models intertwined that will be realized through: The main focus and objective/s of the project will be development of basic concepts of Drini watershed for using of forest effect on watershed`s hydrology in terms of flood prevention, and minimizing its consequences including use of forests and communities of tree species growing in and outside the forest.

August, 2018
The project will demonstrate bio-engineering models intertwined that will be realized through: The main focus and objective/s of the Project will be development of basic concepts of Drini watershed for using of forest effect on watershed`s hydrology in terms of flood prevention, and minimizing its consequences including planting tree species in and outside the forest associated with other biological measures. Hydric functions of forests belong to the best known and most important functions. It means the influence of forest on the water in its widest meaning of the word. Interactions among forest, water and other components of the environment vary widely. Forest is only one factor of water cycle in the landscape, so its impact on the water regime is different in different conditions. The main aim and objective of the project is increasing community-based adaptation and resilience against floods and extreme events (erosion, landslides, floods, droughts, heatwaves, wildfires, rainfall and wind storms)..
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NEFOCAST is a FAR-FAS research project funded by the Tuscany Region Government (Italy) that aims at setting up, and demonstrating through field experiments, the concept of a system able to provide precipitation maps in real-time based on the attenuation measurements collected by a dense population of interactive satellite terminals (called SmartLNB, smart Low-Noise Block converter) commercially used as bidirectional modems. The system does not require the set-up of specific precipitation measuring instruments, but uses telecommunication links.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
The NEFOCAST system has been initially tested in lab and first assumptions on the algorithms implemented in the service centre have been defined. In 2018 an experimental network of SmartLNBs has been deployed in Florence and other areas of Tuscany and analysed through a co-located raingauge network and a doppler polarimetric X-band radar for cal/val objectives. Initlal alghoritms have been revised and improved, while validation of the models and of the solution is in progress.

How does it work?

The NEFOCAST project aims at setting up and validating a system able to provide precipitation maps in real-time based on the attenuation measurements collected by a dense population of interactive satellite terminals(called SmartLNBs), designed to be used as bidirectional modems for commercial interactive TV applications. The system does not require the deployment of specific precipitation measuring devices. The attractiveness of this system is due to the possibility of using a huge amount of attenuation measurements from a widespread network of low cost domestic terminals, especially in urban areas, where a very high density of measurements can be achieved.

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Useful Wastes: Brine transformation to circular economy

The Useful Wastes innovation is a physical-chemical treatment that treats the brines, producing up to 80% more fresh water and transforming the rest into a product for use in the industry itself. The product generated is NaOCl (bleach) at 1%. This NaOCl is safe, clean, useful and enough to kill microorganisms.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
We are in TRL 6 because we have a first prototype operating and producing 2000 L/day NaOCl. We are testing another prototype that produces more than 6000 L/day and collaborating with companies to optimize the process.

How does it work?

The system consist mainly of two phases: 1) Physical-chemical treatment: First, the salts that interfere with the subsequent process are eliminated. After that, another reverse osmosis is performed. Because the salts have been eliminated, higher pressure can be applied and thanks to this, up to 80% of the water contained in that brine can be recovered. In addition to getting water, a concentration of the brine is produced, which will serve to generate the bleach in the next step. 2) In the second step, the rest of concentrated brine is taken and by electrochemistry it is transformed into 1% NaOCl (bleach).

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The negative effect of roads on the environment can be reversed if roads are systematically used as instruments for rainwater harvesting. Thus, road harvesting can generate substantial positive impacts: more secure water supply, better soil moisture, reduced erosion and respite from harmful damage. In addition, rainwater harvesting leads to better returns to land and labour, and a higher ability of people, households and communities to deal with and prosper regardless of shocks and stresses.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
Since 2015, we have promoted and implemented the Roads for Water concept in Sub-saharan Africa. All technologies have been implemented on the field and socio-economic and hydrological monitoring has been carried out.

How does it work?

Road infrastructure itself can be used to harvest water and redistribute run-off to areas where it is beneficial. Roads either act as an embankment that guide water or act as a drain that channel rainwater. This can be used in a systematic way. The amount of water that can be harvested depends on the rainfall pattern, the catchment area as defined by the road, the rainfall patterns and the land use and soil characteristics within the catchment area. There are many technologies that can be applied such as the construction of ponds harvesting water from culverts and roadside drainage, trenches and flood-water spreaders

January, 2019
- Hazard classification changed from "Drought" to "Heavy precipitation" - Webpage link restored by Sergio Contreras (WP3 leader)
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The innovation refers to some combined solutions for storm (rain) water collection in polders and subsequently using it for infiltration in the subsurface (groundwater artificial recharge). Software is used to define the water collection area, the volume of rain water that will be collected and to establish and design the location and the dimensions of these polders.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
A pilot case study was already developed for an agricultural area of 650 ha, in the south - west of Romania. The procedures were developed and calibrated on real data (digital parameters of the land surface, hydrogeological characteristics of the subsurface, land use, runoff coefficients, infiltration potential, precipitation parameters) and were used to identify potential solutions for climate change mitigation, respectively flood mitigation and water storage for using it during the drought periods. The adequate software for each phenomenon involved in this application were tested. The steps that have to be followed for the implementation of this procedure were clearly defined and the results achieved on mathematical models for this pilot case study are very satisfactory. The impact of this solution on rain water collection and storage was positive

How does it work?

This innovation could be used either for rural/urban areas or for agricultural lands. The rain water will be collected by the aid of open channel networks; the channels will end in the depression zones close to collection area. A series of polders (cascade) will be designed along these depression areas with the aid of a dedicated software. A detailed study of water infiltration feasibility, specific to the polder areas will be conducted; the construction of artificial equipment for infiltration could be needed. When the first polder will be filled with water, the downstream polders will be supplied by the aid of an overflow. The areas equipped with irrigation channels the retention of rain water may benefit by these channels.

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RichWater is a modular technology reclaiming water from domestic/urban wastewater for combined irrigation and fertlisation purpose. The system allows to produce high quality effluent meeting the regulatory standards for irrigation of crops to be consumed by humans while preserving the content of nutrients relevant for the fertilization effect. The complete system is composed of four modules: i) wastewater treatment module consisting of a Membrane Bioreactor; ii) mixing unit; iii) fertigation module; and iv) control and monitoring unit.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
The technology has been tested and validated in an operational environment. The test site is a field with a greenhouse and several irrigation sector where several crops have been irrigated with RichWater effluent. Agronomic studies have been performed to proof the validity of the solution. Finally, the final version tested is the one that it is going to be commercialized.

How does it work?

RichWater treatment system is based on a compact Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for wastewater treatment. The design of the MBR has been adapted to the use of the effluent for irrigation of crops. The design of the RichWater treatment system allows to produce high quality effluent free of pathogens by the use of Ultrafiltration membranes while maintaining optimal content level of nutrients adapting the biological processes. The MBR is assembled to a mixing unit where the MBR effluent is mixed with clear water and a minimum amount of fertilisers according to the crop demands. The mixing unit is assembled to an irrigation system (i.e. fertigation module) which distributes the nutrient rich mixture of reclaimed water and clear water to the crops.

January, 2019
TRL is updated according to the current status of the novel system that has to be tested.
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The innovation refers to a decision support system based on a software model of the city infrastructure. The DSS system allows the risk analysis in case of potential storm damages, the prioritization of the identified climate change adaptation measures and emergency situation readiness preparation in case of heavy rainfall. The decision support system can be used either offline or online as an operational real time system for emergency situation due to heavy rainfall in the urban areas.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
A pilot case study was already developed for a small area in Bucharest, Romania. A coupled Mike Urban (for the sewage)+Mike 21 (for the surface runoff) model was developed and calibrated on real data. The most important results obtained from the pilot model were water depth and velocities distribution maps (grids) on the surface analyzed area, which were further used to identify potential solutions for climate change adaptation.

How does it work?

Municipalities and water utility companies should conjunctionally implement such decision support systems that will provide solutions for climate change mitigation in the cities. Models of existing collection system infrastructure is built. Based on different climate change scenarios one can assess how vulnerable existing infrastructure is to climate change conditions and what solutions can be addressed to lower or completely mitigate storm events effect upon the city. Identified solutions are also tested through existing model. After this stage the utility can opt for building a real time operational decision support system that will provide warning based on now casted or forecasted conditions.

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