Green-skin permeable system for urban rainwater management

Cities need a new "living and permeable skins" that act as water and atmospheric filters. Permeable systems focus on the origin of the problem allowing to "plug or replace" many of the current impermeable surfaces by new ones composed by "infiltration cells" and "flat ducts" that are able to collect rainwaters and increase the filtering and recycling of urban runoff fluxes.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
The different components of the SUDS’ solution have been and are being tested and demonstrated at the small scale in Spain and abroad (building roofs, parkings at surface level, railway stations). These tests have been performed in Madrid, Barcelona, Logroño and Valencia the framework of different research (FIDICA) and applied projects (LIFE CERSUDS). SUDS aims to promote the implementation of this nature-based technology concept at larger scale during the design of urban development processes in Europe and Mediterranean countries.

How does it work?

This SUDS’ solution combines a "soil permeable system" with a "flat conduit pavement" made with new materials. The system is able to emulate the natural hydrological cycle, capturing the rainwater as much as possible to where it falls, filtering it, and channeling the resulting subsurface drainage - through "drainage cells" or flat conduits - to suitable sites where to be stored, treated or recharged. In doing that, the system reduces the pollution of urban runoff fluxes, and the requirements of water for gardening.

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Floating cities with positive impact

Integrated floating city concept: urban development, ecological development, nutrient/CO2 recycling, food/energy production on water and monitoring with underwater drones
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
Floating foundations are already proven technology. The integration and symbiosis among different floating functions is however something that still needs to be tested.

How does it work?

Urban development on water is combined with ecological development. Ecological structures offer habitat for (under)water species and provide other ecosystem services such as nutrient recycling. Food production is also included in the concept. Nutrients consumed by people are used to grow algae in floating systems. Algae are used as a base for biofuel and feed production. Feed is fed to fish grown in aquaponic systems. In this way local food is produced. Floating innovations related to food, energy production, infrastructure and ecological development can be integrated in the concept. The impacts on the environment and the aquatic life are evaluated using innovative monitoring systems such as underwater drones equipped with sensors and cameras.

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GIS-WRAP (Geographical Information System and Weather Risk Awareness Platform) is a toolbox for the mapping and assessment of multi-risk scenarios (forest fires, floods, extreme weather). It combines weather observation and forecast, and thematic and remote sensing data in a time-dependent geographical platform to feed models in an interoperable fashion. Outcomes in the form of risk indices, warnings, and vulnerability reports, are communicated through an advanced visualization interface.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
Most of GIS-WRAP components, and a preliminary pilot version of the integrated system, have been tested in operational use for risk assessment in real forest fires, along the last four fire campaigns in Madrid Region (Spain), while some other services -yet experimental-, such as the integration of satellite-based forest fuel moisture monitoring, have been tested separately in other areas, such as Basque Country Region (Spain). Feedback from end-users at the operational bodies has been duly collected and used for further improvement and adaptation of the system. Currently, testing of components for the integration of vulnerability in the risk assessment process is taking place.

How does it work?

GIS-WRAP seeks and collects weather observation and forecast data from external datasets according to quality and resolution criteria. Meteorological data are processed, if required, using spatial interpolation and numerical downscaling techniques, and are 2D/3D shown through visualization consoles. This data is then combined with spatial thematic layers to retrieve additional risk variables and indexes, and warnings are generated after a threshold-based approach is set up. Modelling techniques are finally used to simulate the evolution of hazard and its induced effects (spread of forest fires or floods), its intensity, and the area affected. Vulnerability maps and reports are also generated for supporting operational decisions.

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ThirdEye: Flying Sensors to support farmers’ decision making

Flying Sensors, sometimes referred to as drones, provide high resolution information on crop status. Our innovation provides this information at: (i) an ultra-high spatial resolution, (ii) an unprecedentedly flexibility in location and timing, (iii) a spectrum outside the human eye. The latter is very important since this information shows potential threats to crops such as droughts, diseases, fertilizer stress, about 10-days earlier compared to the human eye observation.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
Testing plan completed
The testing plan and the BRIGAID’s Testing Innovation Framework (TIF) has been rightly applied and finished. The TRL of the innovation has been effectively reached.
The Flying Sensor approach information has been tested, validated and demonstrated the different components of the system at very different boundary conditions and in the frame of different projects (REDSIM, GEISEQ, DMIAT, ThirdEye – see FutureWater website for details). The current innovation integrates these components into one single service which has been validated and demostrated at different test sites (i.e. experimental farms).

How does it work?

Flying Sensors (drones) are equipped with high resolution cameras that collect information in the near-infrared spectrum. Compared to the human eye, crops stress can be seen in the near-infrared about 10 days earlier providing farmers ample time to respond. Special focus will be put on disease detection by looking at in-field scale variability and the evolution of a stress location over a couple of days. The latter will be done by innovative image analysis and forecast procedures.

August, 2019
Upgraded to TRL7 by WP3 leader
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Spatial Processes in HYdrology (SPHY)

SPHY is a public domain model, that is easy to use, requires only precipitation and temperature as forcing, and can be applied for operational as well as strategic decision support. The SPHY model has been applied and tested in various studies ranging from real-time soil moisture predictions in flat lands, to operational reservoir inflow forecasting applications in mountainous catchments, and detailed climate change impact studies in the snow- and glacier-melt dominated regions.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
It has been tested and applied in several physiographical and hydroclimatic regions, ranging from the snow- and glacier dominated Himalayas, to river basins in African countries, to lowland catchments in the Netherlands to river deltas in Vietnam.

How does it work?

The SPHY model has been developed using the Python programming language and the PCRaster Dynamic Modelling Framework. The model can be downloaded from either the website (www.sphy.nl) or the Github repositor (https://github.com/FutureWater/SPHY). Several tutorials, manuals and case-studies have been developed to make the model accessible to a large user group worldwide. To make the model even more easier to use, we have developed a model interface (GUI) and pre-processor as plugins for QGIS. The model can be run using either these GUIs or through editing the model configuration file. Further details on how-to use and apply this tool can be found on the websites shown above.

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This technology generates new water resources for irrigation from the treatment of agro-industrial wastewaters through the usage of a holistic nature-sourced technology which combines a nanocomposite clarification-sedimentation system for the TSS removal, aerated bio-reactors for the COD and nutrient removal, and halophyte-zeolite wetlands for the sodium removal.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
Testing plan completed
The testing plan and the BRIGAID’s Testing Innovation Framework (TIF) has been rightly applied and finished. The TRL of the innovation has been effectively reached.
The pre-treatment modules (nanocomposite, and aerated bioreactors) already work and have been demonstrated under operational conditions in a winery industry (TRL 7). The HZW module for SAR reduction has been positively tested under in a simulated operational environment. High rates of effectiveness have been achieved using the Zeolite-Sesuvium combination (reduction of Na+ from 90-520 in dairy inflows, to 30-120 in treated outflows).

How does it work?

HZW is a green module integrated by natural ion-exchange resins (zeolites) and halophytes in an artificial wetland which is able to reduce the Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) using exchange reactions and plant up take. HZW is part of a 3-stage modular system for the treatment of dairy farm wasterwaters which consists of a (patented) clay-polymer nanocomposite system for reducing TSS, a set of aerated cells for COD and nutrient removal (by up to 95%), and the HZW for the sodium removal.

October, 2019
- Update of innovation description by WP3 leader - TRL updated by WP3 leader (from TRL4 to TRL6) - Testing development report approved by WP3 leader
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Raincast: A seasonal forecasting system for drought management

Raincast is a seasonal forecasting system for predicting rainfall and reservoir inflows which alerts when water levels in reservoirs are below the guarantee curve. It integrates statistical methods to characterize the hydroclimatic variability, and machine learning techniques used in artificial intelligence. By combining these tools, Raincast is able to provide a more accurate long-term prediction of rainfall and streamflows.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
The system has been tested in a relevant environment, and used to forecast precipitation and reservoir inflows for an important company located in the Basque Country (Spain). Good performance indicators were achieved during these tests, and new technological improvements were additionally adopted. Furthermore, Raincast has been experimentally validated for a short number of local cases, but it requires a stronger validation using additional testing cases in order to confirm previous results and improve the accuracy of the outputs.

How does it work?

Meteobit provides a reliable solution for the forecasting of rainfall and streamflows at seasonal and sub-seasonal scales commonly used by the public water supply and agricultural sectors, and other industrial end users. Using ensemble weather forecasting for precipitation, Raincast has been designed to provide critical forecast guidance as well as a true sense of forecast risk. Meteobit's product is a valuable tool for anticipating hydrological droughts and managing water resources.

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Multiflexmeter

The Multiflexmeter is an open source and modular instrument for continuous and online measurement of water systems. It can be equipped with various sensors for measuring water height, conductivity, water quality, etc. It is expected that the price of a Multiflexmeter will not exceed € 150, -. This means that it is possible to set up a high-resolution monitoring network at low cost.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
Testing plan completed
The testing plan and the BRIGAID’s Testing Innovation Framework (TIF) has been rightly applied and finished. The TRL of the innovation has been effectively reached.
The first Multiflexmeters have been setup to monitor water systems in the Province of Zeeland (Netherlands). See https://beheer.mfmnet.nl/grafana/dashboard/db/multiflexmeter?orgId=1 for a Multiflexmeter that measures water levels and sends data through LoRa. A test plan is being formulated in network configuration to monitor salinity in the agricultural area of Tholen. Here farmers pay for fresh water supply and the hypothesis is that less water is needed using the Multiflexmeter, reducing the costs.

How does it work?

The Multiflexmeter is a modular measuring device for continuous and online measurement of water systems. It can be equipped with various sensors for measuring water height, conductivity, water quality, etc. It has endless power supply and various communication capabilities, including Internet or Things Network such as LoRa. The Multiflexmeter and its development is fully open source in terms of hardware and software.

August, 2017
*** Changes done by Sergio Contreras (WP3 leader) - Company logo included (the innovation logo has been deleted) - Web link is now working *** Changes done by Teun - Company logo replaced by MFM logo
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EVACOLD uses the residual heat generated in steam boilers of chimneys or the energy generated by renewable infraestructures, to evaporate salty waters at temperatures below 50 ºC. Salts are concentrated for being treated or reused, while water vapour can be condensed to collect new water resources. In semiarid areas with brackish water resources, EVACOLD emerges as an energy low-cost solution able to treat the brine effluents resulting from osmosis desalinization plants.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
A semi-industrial scale prototype for on-site testing of about 1000 liters/day is available. Additionally, in situ-operational tests have been carried out for two companies: ARD an olive industry that generates brine effluents, and Nanta an agrofeed industry that generates polluted effluents from its poured steam boiler and descaling systems. Promising results were achieved in both cases.

How does it work?

EVACOLD heats incoming brackish (polluted) water to 50 °C and passes through an exchanger in which it is in contact with an incoming pre-heated air flow. The system generates two by-products: an air saturated with water, which can be condensed to generate distilled water, and dry salty residue that need to be handled properly. The energy required by EVACOLD to heat both incoming fluids (brackish water and air) is provided by: a) a photovoltaic solar panel which feeds a fan, the air cooling system and a set of small transfer pumps, and b) solar thermal panels which heat the incoming water to 50 °C, and the air up to the saturation point. In EVACOLD, there is no change between the liquid and vapor phases, so the energy consumption is minimal.

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My Flood Risk is available in the app stores. The app contains the flood depths with estimated return period of 10, 100 and 1000 years, based on the IPCC climate predictions for the period 1971-2000. Updates are foreseen for future climate projections (2050, 2100). The Pan-European flood maps were prepared within project “Risk Analysis of Infrastructure Networks in response to extreme weather” (RAIN). RAIN received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no. 608166.
Technology demonstrated in relevant environment.
Representative model or prototype system, which is well beyond that of TRL 5, is tested in a relevant environment. Represents a major step up in a technology’s demonstrated readiness. Examples include testing a prototype in a high-fidelity laboratory environment or in a simulated operational environment.
Selected for Testing
Selected for Testing: This innovation has been selected by BRIGAID because of its promising value for reducing the risks or the impacts of extreme hydro-climatological events. After a rigorous assessment, BRIGAID has positively approved the innovator’s testing plan, and decided to provide ongoing support for the testing activities.
The apps are launched in the summer of 2018. The software is already completely tested and reliable, as the app is based on the existing Dutch equivalent OverstroomIk? Improvements or updates are based on user experiences and feedback, e.g. with regard to language and functionality. HKV invites national, regional and local authorities in the EU to validate the data against local data sets.

How does it work?

EU citizens with smart phones can download the app from the Android or Apple stores. The app contains a map showing the exposed areas. By ticking a location (e.g., your home) the app provides the estimated flood depth for the selected return period. The apps provides these maps free of charge.

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